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Chemical Name:
Surface Used On:
Dry porous items.
Sensitive To:
Amino Acid & eccrine components.
Development Color: Method to Record: Hazard: Protective Clothing: Fume Hood Use:

Yellow fluorescence

Orange or Red filters.

Reagent Characteristics

Development Complete When:

Source of Error:



Storage Container:



Similar Reagents

Sequential Reagents
(Not necessarily in this order.)

Abridged Reagent Sequence

Visual Examination
Forensic Light
** 1,2-Indanedione **
Forensic Light
Zinc chloride/Liquid nitrogen

(mix in the following order)

  2 g  1,2-Indanedione
 70 ml Ethyl acetate
930 ml HFE 7100


1. Dip, spray or wash the item
in the reagent.

2. Air-dry the item (3 minutes).

3. Oven bake at 100 degrees C
for 10 - 20 minutes at 60%
relative humidity or 
with no added humidity.

4. View under a forensic light source:

For most papers ......
View @ 515 nm (green light) 
with orange barrier filter.

For manila, brown paper bags,
cardboard items & craft paper ....
View @ 515 - 570 nm with
orange or red barrier filters.

    ** OPTION **

5. Spray lightly with Zinc chloride,
and/or cool the treated item with 
liquid Nitrogen. View with forensic
light source.

Ridge Detail Visualized by:

Forensic Light Source induced.

Reagent Applicabilities:

Porous sufaces
Amino Acid developer
Fluorescent technique
Raw Wood surface

Other Chemical Name(s):


Process Summary:
An amino acid sensitive reagent that is comparable to D.F.O. processing. Ridge detail developed with 1,2-Indanedione will fluoresce yellow 515 - 570 nm. Optimum viewing and photographing is done with a orange or red barrier filters. Post-treatement can be performed with Zinc chloride to improve the fluorescence of the ridge detail. Reports suggest that 1,2-Indanedione upon Zinc chloride treatment and cooling with liquid nitrogen produces superior fluorescence of ridge detail as compared to DFO.

Little discoloration of the treated porous items can be expected with this reagent as compared to the yellow discoloration that may be seen with DFO treated paper items.
Accepted Deviations:
Pentane, Heptane or HFE-7100 can be substituted for Petroleum ether as the carrier solvent.
Supporting Reference Materials:
1. Ramotowski, R.; Cantu, A.A.; Joullié, M.M.; Petrovskaia, O. "1,2-Indanediones: A Preliminary Evaluation of a New Class of Amino Acid Visualizing Compounds", Fingerprint Whorld, Vol. 23, No. 90, 1997, pp. 131-140.
2. Almog, J., Springer, E., Wiesner, S., Frank, A. et al., "Latent Fingerprint Visualization by 1,2-Indanedione and Related Compounds: Preliminary Results", Jor. of Forensic Sciences, Vol. 44, No. 1, 1999, pp. 114-118.
3. Minutiae Magazine, Summer Special 1994, Issue No. 24, pg.7.
4. "Chemical Formulas and Processing Guide for Developing Latent Prints", U.S. Dept. of Justice, pg. 47-48, 1994.
5. Roux C., Jones, N., Lennard C., Stoilovic, M., "Evaluation of 1,2-indanedione and 5,6-dimethoxy- 1,2-indanedione for the Detection of Latent Fingerprints on Porous Surfaces", Jor. of Forensic Sciences, Vol. 45, No. 4, 2000, pp. 761-769.
6. Kasper, S., Minnillo, D., Rockhold, A., "Validating IND (1,2-indanedione)", For. Sci. Communications, Vol. 4, No. 4, Oct. 2002.
7. Wiesner, S., Almog, J., Sasson, Y., Springer, E., "Chemical Development of Latent Fingerprints: IND has come of age", Jor. For. Sciences, Vol. 46, No. 5, 2001, pp. 1082-1084.

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